What is Resisting Arrest?
Resisting arrest occurs when a person interferes with a law enforcement officer’s attempt to perform a lawful arrest. Some states call the crime “obstruction.” The crime can be a felony or a misdemeanor, depending on the severity of the actions of the person being arrested.
Misdemeanor resisting arrest (or misdemeanor obstruction) can include actions such as running and hiding from a law enforcement officer. Felony resisting arrest usually requires that a person either act violently toward the arresting officer or threaten to act violently.
Felony Resisting Arrest: What Does the Prosecutor Have to Prove?
In order to secure a conviction for resisting arrest, the prosecutor must produce evidence on the following issues, called the “elements” of the offense, and the judge or jury must decide that the prosecutor has proved each one of them beyond a reasonable doubt. While the elements of the crime may vary from state to state, usually all of the following must be true:
- The defendant intentionally resisted or obstructed a law enforcement officer. This means the defendant intentionally acted in a way to hinder the arrest. However, the person need not have intended the result or harm that his actions caused.
- The defendant acted violently toward the law enforcement officer or threatened to act violently. For example, striking or pushing the officer would satisfy this requirement. Similarly, a defendant’s threat to strike an officer with an object in the defendant’s hand would also satisfy this requirement.
- The law enforcement officer was lawfully discharging his official duties. This means the law enforcement officer was properly engaged in the performance of official duties, such as investigating a crime or making a traffic stop. A law enforcement officer can be acting lawfully even when arresting the wrong person and even if the charges are dropped or the defendant secures an acquittal at trial.
Who Are “Law Enforcement Officers?”
State laws vary when it comes to defining “law enforcement officers.” In addition to police officers, sheriffs and other commonly encountered peace officers, the term may include other law enforcement personnel such as prison guards, probation supervisors, parole supervisors, park rangers, or correctional officers.
Because private security guards are not performing a public duty, they are usually treated as private citizens and not as law enforcement officers. Therefore, resisting arrest laws often do not apply to attempted arrests by security guards.
The result may be different when off-duty law enforcement officers work as private security guards. Some courts have found that resisting arrest laws do apply to off-duty police officers working as private security guards; but other courts have found that the resisting arrest laws do not apply to these off-duty officers.
How Much Resistance Must the Prosecutor Prove?
State laws also vary as to the kinds of acts and threats that will constitute felony resisting arrest. Physical violence is enough, while a simple refusal to talk is not enough. Non-threatening statements of disagreement with the officer’s actions usually are not enough. However, loud, threatening, and extended arguments may be enough.
Defenses to a Charge of Resisting Arrest
Defendants charged with resisting arrest sometimes offer one or more of the following defenses. The requirements to prove these defenses vary by state.
Police officers are entitled to use the amount of force necessary, in the circumstances, to accomplish the arrest. But if the arresting officer acts violently and is not justified in doing so, the arrestee may protect himself and resist the arrest. For example, if a law enforcement officer unjustifiably attempts to shoot the arrestee, the arrestee may fight back. The person being arrested cannot act violently toward the arresting officer unless the officer acted violently first.
Importantly, the arrestee himself must exercise self-restraint, using only the force reasonably necessary under the circumstances to resist the arrest. For instance, if the arrestee subdues a police officer who has acted unreasonably, the arrestee cannot then harm the officer further.
An unlawful arrest is an arrest that is not authorized by law, such as an arrest without a warrant or probable cause. In some states, a person may resist an unlawful arrest, but only with reasonable force. Reasonable force is generally considered to be only the amount of force necessary to resist the arrest.
In other states, statutes and court rulings have changed this rule to require a person to submit to the unlawful arrest, as long as the law enforcement officer is performing the lawful duties of the officer’s job.
Someone convicted of felony resisting arrest can be subjected to any or all of the following penalties:
- Incarceration. Sentences may involve time in the county jail, or one or more years in state prison, depending on the state. The judge may require that the entire sentence be served in jail.
- Fines. Courts impose fines to penalize defendants. These fines also help defray the cost of maintaining the criminal justice system. Fines vary depending on the circumstances, but usually start at $1,000.
- Probation. A person on probation regularly meets with a probation officer and fulfills other terms and conditions, such as maintaining employment and attending counseling.
- Community service. Courts often include as a part of probation the requirement that the defendant volunteer for a specified number of hours with court-approved organizations, such as charities.